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Changes in Climate

How has ice ages change the

  1. During the Ice Ages the sea level drops. Glaciers are rivers of


moving ice. When the ice recedes, they carve out very large

holes. When they were filled, they became the Great Lakes.

When glaciers melt, they raise the sea levels and coastal towns

are flooded. The ice age changed the face of the Earth in the past

10,000 to 12,000 years.


The Milankovitch Theory

  1. States that the Earth changes the tilt of its orbit in a 100,000 years.

The tilt ranges from 22.2 to 24.5°. When the tilt is 24.5° the poles

receives more energy.


Plate Tectonics

  1. When the Pangaea split, some continents migrated to the poles qua

and others went to the equator. That is why there are tropical

fossils of plants and animals at the poles, who were once at the



Volcanic Eruptions

  1. Volcanic ash blocks out the sun causing the Earth to cool and

causes colder winters.


Asteroid Impact

  1. Causes debris to encapsulate the Earth blocking out sun light.

All plants and animals die due to the lack of food. This happened

65 million years ago when the dinosaurs became extinct.


The Sun’s Cycle

  1. The sun has an 11 year cycle between a solar minimum & a solar

Maximum. During the solar minimum, the sun produces a low

percentage of high – radiation energy. During the solar maximum,

the sun produces a large percentage of high-energy radiation.

7. The excessive amounts of CO2 gases trap heat in the Earth’s

Global Warming

atmosphere, thereby warming Earth’s global temperature.





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