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7thgrade vocabulary

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1.     Absolute location: exact position on the Earth in terms of longitude and latitude

2.     Geography: study of human and non-human features of earth

3.     Hemisphere: one half of the earth

4.     Human-environment interaction: how people affect their environment and how their environment affects them

5.     Movement: how people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another

6.     Place: mix of human and nonhuman features at a given location

7.     Region: area with at least one unifying physical or human feature such as climate, landforms, population, or history

8.     Relative location: location of a place relative to another place

9.     Religion: people’s beliefs & practices about the existence, nature & worship of a god or gods 

10. Fossil fuel: formed over millions of years from the remains of ancient plants and animals

11. Desalination: removal of salt from sea water

12. Urban: cities

13. Muslim: believer in Islam

14. Arab: ethnic group from the region of Saudi Arabia and Iraq

15. Persian Gulf: body of water between Saudi Arabia and Iran

16. Desert: area with very little rainfall & few plants or animals

17. Arid climate: very dry desert climate

18. Suez canal: man-made water passageway through Egypt connecting the Mediterranean & Red Sea

19. Strait: narrow body of water that cuts through land, connecting two larger bodies of water

20. Strait of Hormuz: only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the ocean

21. Red Sea: body of water between Egypt and Saudi Arabia

22. Gaza Strip: Palestinian territory in Israel

23. Fertile crescent: region with good conditions for growing crops that stretches from the Mediterranean coast east though Mesopotamia 

24. Druze: person who follows a religion related to Islam

25. Rain shadow: dry area that forms behind a highland that captures rainfall & snowfall

26. Alawite: person who follows a form of Islam similar to Shia Islam

27. Aquifer: underground layer where water collects

28. West Bank: area in Israel made up of Palestinian Muslims

29. Culture: beliefs, customs, practice and behavior of a particular nation or group of people 

30. Mediterranean climate: summers are hot & dry

31. Jew: a person from a group of people that traces its history from the Hebrews & Abraham

32. Semiarid climate: dry climate

33. Shamal: hot dry winds that blow across Iran from west to east

34. Qanat: tunnel that provided water to Persian villages by bringing water from an aquifer

35. Zoroastrianism: an Iranian religion that dates back to ancient times 

36. Plateau: large, mostly flat area that rises above the surrounding land 

37. Persian: ethnic group found in Iran

38. Turks: main ethnic group in Turkey

39. Kurds: ethnic group that lives in the mountains of Turkey, Iraq & Iran

40. Pollution: waste that makes the air, soil or water less clean 

41. Irrigate: to supply water to 

42. Ethnic Group: group of people who share many characteristics such as language, physical appearance, customs and traditions 

43. Religious Group: group who shares a common belief system, but are not necessarily composed of a single ethnic group

44. Diversity: cultural variety

45. Monotheism: the belief in a single God

46. Quran: holy book of Islam

47. Caliph: Muslim political and religious leader

48. Mosque: Islamic house of worship 

49. Ottoman Empire Muslim Empire centered in Turkey that lasted from the 1500s until 1918.

50. Muhammad: founder of Islam 

51. Shia: group of Muslims that believe Muhammad chose Ali as leader   

52. Sunni: group of Muslims that believe Muhammad chose Abu Bakr as caliph 

53. Abraham: founder of Judaism

54. Christianity: monotheistic religion based on the teaching of Jesus Christ

55. Islam: monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Muhammad

56. Judaism: monotheistic religion descended from Abraham

57. Anti-Semitism: discrimination against Jews

58. Covenant: God’s agreement with Abraham, giving him the land in present day Israel

59. Crusades: religious wars where Christian soldiers attempting to take over the Holy Land

60. Diaspora: scattering of a group of people, especially the Jews

61. Holocaust: mass killing of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II

62. Israel: created as a Jewish state in 1948

63. Palestine: a former British territory whose land became the Jewish country of Israel

64. Prophet: messenger of God 

65. Scripture: sacred writings 

66. Zionism: movement to create a Jewish state in Israel

67. Ethnic Group: group of people who share many characteristics such as language, physical appearance, customs and traditions 

68. Religious Group: group who shares a common belief system, but are not necessarily composed of a single ethnic group Ataturk: name taken by Kemal, “Father of the Turks”

69. Ayatollah: title for high ranking Shia Muslim leaders in Iran

70. Shah: Persian word for King

71. Armenian genocide: killing of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

72. Persia: former name for Iran

73. Ottoman Empire: Muslim empire in what is now Turkey that fell after WWI

74. Safavid Empire: empire in what is now Iran that rose in the 1500s

75. Mustafa Kemal: Turkish leader who tried to modernized and westernize Turkey after WWI

76.  Persian Gulf: body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran 

77. Persian Gulf conflict: US effort to drive Iraq out of Kuwait

78. Iraq Invasion: based on the claim that the Iraqi gov’t was developing nuclear weapons

79. Afghanistan Invasion: US effort started in 2001aiming to capture the people responsible for 9/11

80. Terrorism: use of violence to create fear for political reasons 

81. Democracy: form of government in which citizens hold political power 

82. Fundamentalism: belief that holy books should be taken literally, word for word

83. Islamism: belief that politics and society should follow Islamic teachings

84. Jihad: Arabic word meaning “struggle for reform”

85. Autocracy: gov’t that is controlled by one person

86. Citizen: legal member of a country

87. Confederal system: group of independent states joined together that give a limited amount of power to a common gov’t 

88. Democratic: citizens hold political power

89. Federal: power is divided between central gov’t and state gov’t 

90. Limited government: gov structure in which the government actions are limited by law 

91. Oligarchic: small group ruled the gov’t

92. Parliamentary: parliament chooses government 

93. Presidential: voters directly elect the president 

94. Unitary: central gov’t makes laws for the entire country

95. Majlis: Iranian legislature 

96. Clerics: religious leader

97. Coup: sudden violent overthrow of a government often by the military

98. Theocracy: a government run by a religious power 

99. Legislature: law-making group

100.         Islamic Law: government based on Muslim beliefs

101.         Secular: non-religious

102.         Kingdom: gov’t ruled by a king or queen

103.         Parliamentary system: : parliament chooses government

104.         Republic: form of gov’t where people vote for representatives who make the laws

105.         Absolute monarchy: system of government in which the monarch has unlimited power over the government

106.         Autocracy: government controlled by one person who has not won a free election

107.         Ayatollah: title for high ranking Shia Muslim leaders in Iran

108.         Citizen: legal member of a country

109.         Democracy: form of government in which citizens hold political power

110.         Dictator: leader with complete control over the government

111.         Government: group of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a country or area 

112.         Parliamentary democracy: democracy where parliament chooses the government

113.         Command economy: central government makes all basic economic decisions 

114.         Currency: money used by different countries

115.         Market economy: individual consumers and producers make all economic decisions 

116.         Mixed economy: combines elements of traditional, market, and command economic systems

117.         Specialization: act of concentrating on a limited number of goods or activities 

118.         Trade: exchange of goods and services in a market 

119.         Trade barrier: something that keeps goods and services from entering a country     

120.         Traditional economy: people make economic decisions based on their customs and habits

121.         Fossil: preserved remains of ancient humans, animals or plants 

122.         Boers: Dutch, French or other European farmers in colonial South Africa

123.         Ethnocentrism: attitude that one’s own social or cultural group is better than all others 

124.         Mau Mau: Kenya independence movement during the 1950s 

125.         Apartheid: official South African government policy of keeping White and Black South Africans apart

126.         African National Congress: South African organization that worked for Black civil rights

127.         AIDS: often deadly disease that attacks the immune system and is caused by the HIV virus 

128.         Dictator: leader with complete control over the government

129.         Ethnic group: group of people who share a common race or ethnicity   

130.         Famine: huge food shortage 

131.         Indigenous: native to a region

132.         Nongovernmental organization (NGO): groups that operate with private funding

133.         Republic: gov’t that makes laws through elected representatives

134.         Stability: resistance to sudden change or overthrow

135.         Standard of living: level of comfort enjoyed by a person or society

136.         Swahili: Bantu language that has many Arabic elements and words from other languages

137.         Theocracy: a government run by a religious power

138.         Berbers: indigenous people of western North Africa

139.         Pan-Arabism: idea that all Arabic-speaking countries should cooperate and join together 

140.         Copts: minority group in Egypt that practices Christianity 

141.         Culture: beliefs, customs, practice and behavior of a particular nation or goup of people

142.         Religious group: group of people who share a common religion 

143.         Arab: ethnic group that originated in the Arabian Peninsula

144.         Ashanti: ethnic group that originated in Western Africa near Ghana 

145.         Bantu: ethnic and linguistic group that spread throughout eastern Africa

146.         Swahili: bantu language that has many Arabic elements and words from other languages

147.         Secularism: idea that government should be separate from religion 

148.         Muslim Brotherhood: Islamist party in Egypt 

149.         Unitary: power is held by one central authority

150.         Confederation: local governments hold all of the power

151.         Federal system: power is divided among central, regional and local gov’t

152.         Autocracy: government controlled by one person who has not won a free election

153.         Oligarchy: gov’t where a small group of people are in charge 

154.         Democracy: form of gov’t in which citizens hold political power

155.         Parliamentary democracy: parliament chooses the gov’t

156.         Presidential system: gov’t where voters directly elect the president

157.         Capital: money or goods that are used to make products

158.         Distribution: the way goods are spread out over an area 

159.         Development: country’s economic growth and quality of life

160.         Economics: study of how people meet their wants and needs

161.         Entrepreneurship: starting a business      

162.         GDP:  total value of all goods and services produced in a country in a year

163.         Gross domestic product per capital: a country’s GDP divided by the number of people who live in the country 

164.         Human capital: education & training

165.         Human development index: a measure of living conditions using factors such as life expectancy, education and income      

166.         Microcredit: small loan

167.         Indian subcontinent: land to the south of the Himalayas 

168.         Green revolution: increase in agricultural production created by improved technology

169.         Subsistence farming: farming with little left over to send to market

170.         Flood plain: flat lands along a river

171.         Cultural hearth: place where cultural trains begin and where they spread from

172.         Buddhism: religion that developed out of the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama

173.         Caste system: system that divides society into groups

174.         Partition: splitting a country into two states

175.         Hinduism: religious system of beliefs and practices that emerged in south Asia 

176.         Nirvana: in Hinduism, a state of understanding that releases the soul from the cycle of rebirth

177.         East India Company: British company in control of India

178.         Islam: belief from the Middle East based on the teachings of Muhammad 

179.         Jainism: religion of South Asia that practices nonviolence

180.         Karma: a collection of goods and bad deeds of a person’s life

181.         Mohandas Gandhi: leader of the independence movement in India who believed in non-violence

182.         Nationalism: belief that a group of people with common heritage & history should have their own country

183.         Siddhartha Gautama: founder of Buddhism

184.         Taliban: Muslim extremist group that took over Afghanistan 

185.         Caste system: system that divides society into groups 

186.         Nonalignment: not becoming an ally of either the united states or the soviet union during the cold war

187.         Loess: dust like material that can form soil 

188.         One-child policy: China’s family planning policy; under this law many married couples are only allowed to have one child

189.         Arable land: land that can be used for farming 

190.         Confucianism: belief system based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Confucius

191.         Daoism: philosophy of following the Dao, that is the natural way of the universe

192.         Famine: huge food shortage 

193.         Mao Zedong: leader of the Chinese Communist Party

194.         Great Leap Forward: program to speed up economic development in China

195.         Cultural Revolution: violent attempt at cultural change in China begun by Mao Zedong in the 1960s

196.         Tiananmen Square: site in China of major student demonstrations in 1989 suppressed by the government

197.         Chinese Communist Party: only party allowed in Chinese government 

198.         Communism: gov’t owns all property & makes all economic decisions 

199.         Hydroelectricity: electricity made by water 

200.         Illiterate: not able to read & write

201.         Life expectancy: average number of years a person is expected to live 

202.         Outsourcing: sending tasks to be done by workers outside a company 

203.         Pollution: waste that makes the air, soil or water less clean 

204.         Republic: type of gov’t where citizens vote for representatives

205.         Secular democracy: democracy that is not based on religion 

206.         Single-party state: country in which one political party controls the gov’t

207.         Shinto: tradition that originated in Japan

208.         Korean War: war North Korea & South Korea & their allies during the 1950s

209.         Communism: political & economic system in which gov’t owns all property and makes all economic decisions 

210.         Scarcity: having limited quantity of resources to meet unlimited wants 

211.         Comparative advantage: ability of one person or country to produce goods at a lower cost than another

212.         Interdependent: dependent on one another

213.         Meiji Restoration: time period when Japan’s Emperor was returned to power 

214.         Constitutional monarchy: system of gov’t in which the laws in the constitution limit the monarch’s power 

215.         Occupy: take over, control  

216.         Containment: keeping an idea, like communism, from spreading

217.         Trade barrier: something that keeps goods & services from entering a country

218.         Tariff: tax on imports or exports

219.         Quota: Number limit on quantity of a product that can be imported

220.         Embargo: prohibition on trade from a particular country

221.         Currency: money

222.         International trade: trade between different countries

223.         Human capital: education & training

224.         GDP: total value of all goods and services produced in a country in a year 

225.         Capital: money or goods that are used to make products 

226.         Command economy: economy in which central gov’t makes all basic economic decisions

227.         Colonialism: policy by which one country seeks to rule other areas 

228.         Communism: political & economic system where gov’t owns all property & makes all economic decisions

229.         Containment: keeping an idea like communism from spreading

230.         Domino Theory: idea from the 1960s that if the west allowed one nation in Asia to adopt communism, others would follow 

231.         Ho Chi Min: communist leader of North Vietnam

232.         Monsoons: seasonal winds

233.         Nationalism: belief that a group with a shared history should have their own country or nation 

234.         Peninsula: area of land surrounded by water on three sides

235.         Surplus: extra 

236.         Tsunami: series of huge waves

237.         Unitary system: central government has authority to make laws for the entire country 

238.         Constitutional monarchy: laws in the constitution limit the monarch’s powers 

239.         Federal system: power is divided among central, region & local gov’t 

240.         Oligarchic: gov’t controlled by a small group 

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